The Congress of Vienna

When somebody messes up a neighborhood, it's hard for things to go back to the way they were before. In the same manner of speaking, when Napoleon messed up Europe, Europe just wouldn't go back to the way it was before.

The Congress of Vienna is most notable for estabilishing the many European boundaries and European colonies, and occurred to end the Napoleonic Wars.
Congress of Vienna Boundaries
Map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna

Although the European boundaries have been disputed and changed due to warfare, they support conservatism, which means to suppress radical change. It was the first of conventions, that would be used until the start of World War I, and used in organizations like the United Nations. It gave power to Prussia, later resulting in German Reunification, changing the History of Germany forever.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain kept its boundary - that is, the island Britain and Ireland.
The Dutch Republic became the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and received Belgium (the Spanish/Austrian Netherlands at that time) and Luxembourg (as a personal union with the King), and were represented by the Earl of Clancarty, the British Ambassador at the Dutch court. Of course, Belgium rebelled, and the Netherlands lost Luxembourg once the heritage was lost, althought Luxembourg is still a Grand Duchy today.
Modern European Boundaries
Modern day European Boundaries
France kept Calais, and mantained many current boundaries, including Alsace Lorraine, but lose Nice and Savoy to Piedmont-Sardinia, which would eventually reunite all of Italy. France gained Avignon, which had long been part of the Papal States.
Prussia gained part of Rhineland and more of Poland.
Russia gained more of Poland.
Portugal regained Olivenca.
German Confederation of 38 states was created from the previous 360 states of the Holy Roman Empire, under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor.
  • Austria was represented by Prince Metternich, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Johann von Wessenberg. Since the Congress's sessions were in Vienna, Emperor Francis was kept informed.
  • The United Kingdom was represented first by its Foreign Secretary, Viscount Castlereagh; then by the Duke of Wellington, after Castlereagh's return to England in February 1815; and in the last weeks, by the Earl of Clancarty, after Wellington left to face Napoleon during the Hundred Days.
  • Although Russia's official delegation was led by the foreign minister, Count Karl Robert Nesselrode, Tsar Alexander Iwas also in Vienna and regarded himself – in fact as well as in name – its own sole plenipotentiary.
  • Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. King Frederick William III of Prussia was also in Vienna, playing his role behind the scenes.
  • France, the "fifth" power, was represented by her foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-PĂ©rigord as well as the Minister Plenipotentiary the Duke of Dalberg. Talleyrand had already negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1814 forLouis XVIII of France; the king, however, distrusted him and was also secretly negotiating with Metternich, by mail
This stopped a major war in Europe for nearly 100 years, but to be exact, 99 years, from 1815-1914.

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