Colonies in Southern Asia

Dutch: Indonesia

British: Singapore, Hong Kong, Burma, India, Malaysia, Brunei

French: Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia)

Portugal: Goa, East Timor

Spanish: Phillipines

Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.
The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region. The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines, named after Philip II of Spain, from 1560s. 
Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia which is now Jakarta, as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts ofJava and the surrounding territory.
Britain, with the British East India Company, came late. They started with Penang, but the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire. They temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars and the Spanish areas in the Seven Years War. 
In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their competition with the Dutch. However, their competition lowered in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty lowered their respective interests in Southeast Asia. From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear.
That was called New Imperialism, and it created the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers. The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were destroyed by their governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies. Only Thailand was spared from foreign rule, but, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.
By 1913, the British controlled Burma, Malaya and the northern Borneo territories, the French occupied Indochina, the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies while Portugal managed to hold on to Portuguese Timor. In the Philippines, Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain in 1898 but was handed over to the United States despite protests as a result of the Spanish-American War.
Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia. While the colonial powers profited much from the region's vast resources and large market, colonial rule did develop the region to a varying extent. Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period. 
The introduction Christianity brought by the colonist also have profound effect in the societal change. Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change. 
The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories. In the inter-war years, these nationalist movements grew and often clashed with the colonial authorities when they demanded self-determination.

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