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Napoleon in Egypt...Battle of the Pyramids

The Battle of the Pyramids, or the Battle of Embabeh, started on July 21, 1798 between the French army in Egypt under Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Mamluks in Egypt. It was during France's Egyptian Campaign and had been the battle where Napoleon Bonaparte put into use one of his significant contributions to war tactics, the large divisional square. 

Truly a rectangle, the first and second demi-brigades of the division formed the front and rear faces, while the third demi-brigade formed the two sides.

The French Troops beat the Egyptian Mamluks because Napoleon first ordered an advance on Murad's army with each of the five divisions of his army organized into hollow rectangles with cavalry and baggage at the center and cannon at the corners.

The French winning the Battle of the Pyramids.
The French divisions advanced south in echelon, with the right flank leading and the left flank protected by the Nile. From right to left, Napoleon posted the divisions of Desaix, Reynier, Dugua, Vial and Bon. In addition, Desaix sent a small detachment to occupy the nearby village of Biktil, just to the west. Murad anchored his right flank on the Nile at the village of Embabeh, which was fortified and held with infantry and some ancient cannons. His Mamluk cavalry deployed on the desert flank. Ibrahim, with a second army, watched helplessly from the east bank of the Nile, unable to intervene. 

At about 3:30 pm, the Mamluk cavalry hurled itself at the French without warning. The divisional "squares" of Desaix, Reynier and Dugua held firm and repelled the horsemen with point-blank musket and artillery fire. Unable to make an impression on the French formations, some of the frustrated Mamluks rode off to attack Desaix's detached force. Even this was a failure. Meanwhile, nearer the river, Bon's division deployed into attack columns and charged Embabeh. Breaking into the village, the French routed the garrison. Trapped against the river, many of the Mamluks and infantry tried to swim to safety, but hundreds drowned. Napoleon reported a loss of 29 killed and 260 wounded. Murad's losses were far heavier, perhaps as many as 3,000 of the irreplaceable Mamluk cavalry and unknown numbers of infantry. Murad escaped to Upper Egypt, where he carried on an active guerilla campaign before being run to earth by Desaix in late 1799.
Napoleon Bonaparte named the battle after the Egyptian pyramids, because they were faintly visible on the horizon when the battle took place.
The Battle of the Pyramids
Upon the defeat of their great cavalry, the waiting Mamluk armies in Cairo dispersed to Syria to reorganize. The Battle of the Pyramids signaled the beginning of the end of 700 years of Mamluk rule in Egypt. Despite this auspicious beginning, Admiral Horatio Nelson's victory in the Battle of the Nile ten days later ended Napoleon's hopes for a conquest of the Middle East. The Mamluks lost to Napoleon Bonaparte.
Engulfed by the west bank portion of the city of Cairo, nothing remains of the battlefield today.

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