An Shi Rebellion

The Tang Dynasty is in Green.
The An Lushan Rebellion, led by General An Lushan, took place in China during the Tang Dynasty. General An Lushan, with 160,000 soldiers, took over Luoyang, and proceeded to take the Tang capital, Chang'an.

Up to this point, the Tang Dynasty had been extremely successful for a Chinese dynasty. They succeeded in crushing nomadic raiders, and the Tang had expanded their control past modern-day Xinjiang.

General An Lushan is believed to be of Turkish ancestry, and in the time leading up to his rebellion, he succeeded in winning both the Emperor and Chancellor to his side. This let him get huge amounts of power while he was in the northeast border regions, a problem characteristic of the Tang.

In fact, the Tang prioritized the military so much that the military was possibly the single strongest institution, something that their successors, the Song, would reverse. The founder of the Song had been a Tang general and had no wish for his new dynasty to be overthrown by the military. Unfortunately for him, this left the Song open for conquest by the Mongols.

When the Chancellor died, he was replaced by one of An Lushan's rivals, Yang Guozhong. After around 9 years, Lushan rose up in 755.

An Lushan named his country the Great Yan Dynasty. An Lushan was assassinated by his son, An Qingxu, in January 757 AD. An Qingxu was then assassinated by Shi Siming, who was then assassinated by his son, Shi Chaoyi. 

Then the Yan Capital, Luoyang, in 762, was taken by the Tang Dynasty, and the Emperor Shi Chaoyi fled, but was intercepted. He commite suicide, rather than being captured.

Around 40 Million people died: Nearly the same amount of people as World War II, and more people died in this war than in World War I.

The An Lushan Rebellion was a major societal disturbance and turmoil which took place in China during the Tang Dynasty from December 16, 755 AD to February 17, 763 AD, beginning when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China and establishing a rival Yan Dynasty. It continued after An Lushan's death under his son An Qingxu and his deputy and successor Shi Siming.  
The rebellion spanned the reigns of three Tang emperors before it was quashed, and involved a wide range of regional powers; besides the Tang dynasty loyalists, others involved were anti-Tang families, especially in An Lushan's base area in Hebei, Arab, Gokturk, and Sogdian forces or influences, among others. The rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and led to the loss of the Western Regions. - Wikipedia

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